- Play(ful) Pedagogical Practices for Creative Collaborative Literacy
- literacy play for the early years book 1 learning through fiction volume 1 Manual
- Research Article
More research is necessary to resolve this debate. Whole language is currently controversial approach to teach reading. If cognitive behaviors are the immediate results of our brain states, then the most effective way of uncovering a cognitive behavior is to understand the brain states that would lead to it. Brain states are determined by the organization of synaptic connections between neurons that generate various patterns of activations. Thus, brain imaging can provide insights into the neural basis that would lead to the certain cognitive behavior.
Two decades ago, brain research has suggested that the socioeconomic status SES modulates brain-behavior relationships in reading [ 25 ]. Specifically, as SES levels decreased, the relationship between the phonological language skill and functional magnetic resonance imaging fMRI data was stronger, whereas as SES levels increased, these brain-behavior relationships were attenuated [ 25 ]. To better understand the importance of emergent reading experience, brain imaging evidence will be used to demonstrate the underlying neural basis supporting the developmental continuum aspect of learning to read.
Play(ful) Pedagogical Practices for Creative Collaborative Literacy
Recent advances in neuroimaging techniques make it possible to identify the brain-based factors that facilitate successful reading outcomes. Importantly, brain imaging may provide innovative solutions to improve education curriculums and lead to improvements in reading results in young children. Over the last decades, neuroimaging studies focused on identifying brain markers that are the cause of dyslexia see reviews: [ 48 , 49 ].
Although researchers are far from concluding that the brain markers causing dyslexia, we have learned about the neural basis of reading acquisition.
For instance, a left-lateralized brain network, including temporoparietal and occipitotemporal cortices, is critical to facilitate skilled reading [ 50 , 51 ] see Figure 1. High white matter integrity in accurate fasciculus AF predicts better reading outcomes in children at risk for dyslexia [ 52 ].
If neuroimaging measures can identify children at risk for reading difficulties before they even start to learn to read in school, early emergent reading interventions can be applied to help them overcome the risk of developing reading difficulties in school years. Only a limited number of studies have specifically investigated the relationship between emergent reading environments and neuroimaging data.
Brain regions and white matter tracts related to reading on a 3D rendered brain. They reported that higher StimQ Reading scores were associated with stronger activation in occipital cortices, including lateral occipital gyrus and precuneus, which can be attributed to mental imagery evoked during story listening [ 58 ]. Their study sample includes nineteen 3- to 5-year-old children from a longitudinal study of healthy brain development. In preschool children listening to stories, greater home reading exposure was positively related to activation of left posterior occipital fusiform, lateral occipital, posterior inferior temporal, posterior middle temporal, posterior cingulate, and angular gyri and left precuneus household income is controlled.
Their finding suggests that brain-based markers exist as a result of parent-child reading in early childhood. Thus, emergent reading shall be promoted and may help shape the developing brain and better prepare a child for formal reading instructions in school.
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In order to identify children at risk for DD, familial risk can be used as a good indicator. One group led by Dr. This study aimed to identify brain mechanism of how HLE affects reading development in beginning readers. In reading-related brain regions e. In the nonreading-related brain region e. These findings suggest that genetic predisposition for DD alters contributions of HLE to brain activation. Specifically, typically developing children can benefit more from better HLE than children with familial risk for DD. Therefore, enhanced HLE is especially important for children with familial risk for DD to have the same impact as for typically developing children.
Shared parent-child reading is one of the important factors in emergent reading. A recent study demonstrated increased activation and functional connectivity in children who are more deeply engaged during shared reading in 22 mother-daughter pairs [ 71 ]. The same group also associated shared reading quality scores with brain activation, and they found a positive correlation between shared reading quality scores with activation in left-hemispheric regions supporting expressive and complex language, social-emotional integration, and working memory in 22 healthy, 4-year-old girls from low SES [ 72 ].
Their findings suggest that the use of shared parent-child reading is crucial for emergent reading experience, but the quality of this experience has also a strong impact on brain development.
literacy play for the early years book 1 learning through fiction volume 1 Manual
Especially for those at-risk families, improvements of the quality of shared reading can promote healthy brain development and better prepare a child for future success in school. They included five regions inferior frontal gyrus, precentral gyrus, superior temporal gyrus, inferior parietal lobule, and occipitotemporal cortex in their effective brain connectivity model [ 74 ].
They found that effective connectivity between the inferior frontal gyrus and the occipitotemporal cortex during reading tasks changes during reading acquisition. In addition, the group readers with dyslexia presented different developmental trajectory than the control group. The general downregulation of connectivity in the control group might reflect that they need these connections to establish reading skills initially, and then, the connections are no longer needed after later automaticity is established.
The dyslexia group showed late development of some connections in occipitotemporal cortices. However, they seem to show overcompensation around age 8, followed by normalization before age Importantly, the dyslexia group was clearly lagging behind in the development of the brain networks at the age of 8 emergent reading stage , suggesting emergent reading stage is critical.
But they found a significant decrease in the dorsal, decoding processing pathway from fusiform gyrus FG to inferior parietal lobule IPL for the group who improved more from the first to the second time point, suggesting that the improvements in reading skills lead to a decreased reliance on the dorsal pathway decoding processing pathway in the brain.
The high and low improving groups did not differ in behavioral performance at T1, and high improvers showed greater connectivity between FG and IPL at T1 compared to the low improvers. The dorsal pathway facilitates phonological processing, which is necessary for development of the ventral pathway supporting automatic processing of visual word forms.
However, there is no sequential relationship between the two routes. They may develop simultaneously. Seed-based brain network analysis revealed increases in connection strength in the brain network of children with above-average gains in phonological processing but decreases in connection strength in the brain network of children with below-average gains in phonological processing measured by Comprehensive Test of Phonological Processing CTOPP. Moreover, the connection strength between LIPC and the left posterior occipitotemporal cortex LpOTC, BA 18 at the pre-reading stage significantly predicted reading skills at the emergent reading stage.
This chapter demonstrates the view of emergent reading and brain imaging evidence supporting advocacy for emergent reading. Emergent reading emphasizes the developmental continuum aspect of learning to read and the importance of reading-related behaviors occurring before school. Both behavioral and imaging studies on DD suggest that early reading skills are essential to the later development of reading.
Most children start formal reading curriculum in kindergarten; however, at that time, many factors genetic, SES, HLE, etc. Moreover, early interventions work more effectively. For example, they may write about caring for a pet science or a report on a visit to a factory technology. They will be able to read and talk about what they have written. In Year 1 your child will learn about numbers, algebra symbols , geometry shapes , measurement and statistics.
They will learn to count on their fingers and by using objects. These are only some of the skills your child will learn at school. For more information and examples go to the New Zealand Curriculum website. To work out words they don't know they will use what they know about letters and other words in the writing. The stories they read will have a variety of sentence structures. Your child will be taught punctuation with a focus on how it guides the way we use expression, and how it can alter meaning. Your child will be bringing home both fiction and non-fiction books.
In Year 2 your child will write simple stories and texts they can use at school and at home. This might include simple instructions, explanations of what happens and the way it happens, simple descriptions of people, or descriptions of things they have done and seen, know about or are have made up.
In Year 2 your child will learn to solve problems using numbers, algebra symbols , geometry shapes , measurement and statistics. They will be counting forwards and backwards in their heads starting from the biggest number, rather than from 1. They may use their fingers to keep track of numbers. Your child will learn to skip count eg 5, 10, 15, 20 and to work with basic fractions. Back to top. Your child will be able to use the pictures and other parts of the book sub-headings, text boxes, footnotes, glossaries, indexes, diagrams, maps to work out the meaning.
Reading Research Quarterly, 35 2 , — Gewertz, C. Districts gird for added use of nonfiction. Education Week, 31 12 , pp. Marzano, R. A new era of school reform: Going where the research takes us. Milliot, J. Publishers Weekly. Retrieved from www. Washington, DC: Authors. Porter, A. Common Core standards: The new U.
Educational Researcher, 40 , — Reis, S. Using enrichment reading practices to increase reading, fluency, comprehension, and attitudes. Journal of Educational Research, , — Rideout, V. Generation M2: Media in the lives of 8- to year-olds. Sanacore, J. Understanding the fourth-grade slump: Our point of view. The Educational Forum, 73 , 67— Santos, F.