- Interpersonal Perception: A Social Relations Analysis by David A. Kenny
- ISBN 13: 9780898621143
- Interpersonal Perception: A Social Relations Analysis (Distinguished Contributions in Psychology)
Heider introduced two theories that correspond to his two articles from attribution theory and cognitive balance. The Psychology of Interpersonal Relations illuminates a sophisticated approach toward naive or common-sense psychology. In The Psychology of Interpersonal Relations, Heider argued that social perception follows many of the same rules of physical object perception, and that the organization found in object perception is also found in social perception. Because biases in object perception sometimes lead to errors e.
Heider also argued that perceptual organization follows the rule of psychological balance. Although tedious to spell out in completeness, the idea is that positive and negative sentiments need to be represented in ways that minimize ambivalence and maximize a simple, straightforward affective representation of the person.
He writes "To conceive of a person as having positive and negative traits requires a more sophisticated view; it requires a differentiation of the representation of the person into subparts that are of unlike value , p. But the most influential idea in The Psychology of Interpersonal Relations is the notion of how people see the causes of behavior, and the explanations they make for it—what Heider called "attributions". Attribution theory as one part of the larger and more complex Heiderian account of social perception describes how people come to explain make attributions about the behavior of others and themselves.
In the next step, we tested our two structural models, with either direct or meta relationship quality as a mediator between Communication at Time 1 and Communication at Time 2 see Figure 3. The longitudinal model describing relationship quality at time 2 as a mediator between communication strategies at time 1 and communication strategies at time 2. Only standardized co-efficients are presented and both models i. Meta Perspective are presented in bracktes. The aim of study 2 was to examine the associations between communication strategies and coach-athlete relationship quality over time.
The findings highlight significant direct and indirect effects; specifically, the direct effects observed within the model indicate that communication at time 1 was positively and significantly related to coach-athlete relationship quality at time 2 as well as with communication at Time 2. Further, coach-athlete relationship quality at time 2 was positively and significantly related with communication at time 2.
Together, these findings provide empirical support for the use of communication strategies in predicting the quality of the coach-athlete relationship over time as well as illustrating longitudinal associations between the use of communication strategies across the two time points. Specifically, when athletes perceive themselves to be using communication strategies aiming to help, facilitate, and comfort i. Together, these findings extend study 1 as well as previous research findings Martindale et al. Thus, the present study illustrates how relationship maintenance through communication as defined by support, motivation, and conflict management strategies leads to effective coach-athlete relationships over time.
Indeed, the present study lends support to this contention in that communication strategies and relationship quality are reciprocally associated. We found significant indirect effects for relationship quality at time point two on the associations between athletes use of communication strategies at time point 1 and time point 2, thus supporting mediation. Researchers e. Overall, these findings provide an original contribution to the literature and extend previous research by examining the role of communication strategies as defined by motivation, support and conflict management, and relationship quality as defined by the 3Cs over a period of time.
That said, the characteristics that describe the quality of the coach-athlete relationship i. A longitudinal empirical investigation that focuses on examining an intervention-based program informed by the properties that connect 3Cs coaches and athletes and by the strategies of communication that coaches and athletes use may help us more readily unravel their unique effectiveness and predictive power relative to important outcomes performance and satisfaction.
In fact, their combined effects may be stronger predictors that either of them separately. This conjecture warrants investigation. From an applied perspective, it is important that coaches and athletes remain sensitive to how one another relate and communicate. Raising awareness of the central role of relationships and communication should be a primary concern in training that aims to upskill coaches and athletes.
Moreover, the development of interpersonal skills should also be central in such training programs. The objective of such training would be to enhance specific interpersonal skills that promote relational properties such as trust, respect, appreciation, commitment, sacrifice, accommodation, cooperation, responsiveness and the like as well as communication strategies including support, motivation and conflict management to mention a few.
Relationship and communication-related training would provide a sound platform for the creation of social environments that are positive, safe and empowering within which both coaches and athletes experience success and satisfaction. Whilst this study presents strengths, it is not without its limitations. First, with athletes, the sample was relatively small and the study may have been deficient in statistical power to detect smaller effects Cohen, Second, although longitudinal correlational studies can establish temporal relationships, they can only suggest and not establish causal relationships Taris, In light of this, the findings of the present study may guide future relationship-based interventions that establish evidence based causal relationships.
Interpersonal Perception: A Social Relations Analysis by David A. Kenny
Third, communication was represented as a global construct in study 2 unlike study 1 , that consisted of the support, motivation, and conflict management dimensions of the COMPASS model Rhind and Jowett, ; this approach may have failed to capture the influence of alternative communication strategies beyond those represented within the COMPASS model. Consequently, future studies may investigate longitudinal mediation effects with a variety of the communication dimensions within and beyond the COMPASS model as different strategies may vary in terms of their role and importance Rhind and Jowett, Finally, it is important to note that like study 1, we collected data from predominantly club level, adult aged athletes; further research is merited to explore coach-athlete dyads while considering their individual difference characteristics i.
Dyadic data are of particular importance for future research given that coaches and athletes in two-person relationships do not interact and communicate in isolation. Although the role of coach-athlete relationships in sport has been widely recognized within the last two decades Wylleman, ; Jowett, , only limited research has examined the role of communication strategies within the context of the coach-athlete relationship see, e.
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Previous research has found good quality relationships to be positively associated with an array of sporting outcomes see Jowett and Shanmugam, for a full review and negatively associated with interpersonal conflict Jowett, a ; Wachsmuth et al. Nonetheless, there is dearth of research that examines the mechanisms by which the quality of the coach-athlete relationship associates with important outcomes.
ISBN 13: 9780898621143
Communication has been conceptualized as a psychological process that mediates this association Jowett and Poczwardowski, Moreover, the findings from both studies and when paying attention to the direct effects show that good quality relationships characterized by trust, commitment and cooperation create a social environment within which athletes more readily engage in communication strategies.
Whilst this has been an important development in our research and for practice, communication also encompasses other components. In addition to the content of communication, future research should also pay attention to examining the emotional component i. The second study advances theory by demonstrating temporal patterns across time. It would appear that both relationship quality and communication mutually influence one another and this reciprocal association may be vital processes for the achievement of important outcomes related to performance training and competence and well-being satisfaction.
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Future longitudinal intervention-based research may build on the quantitative data presented in this paper by obtaining qualitative data through diaries and observational techniques e. In summary, communication is a significant factor not only for the development of high quality coach-athlete relationships but also for continuous sport participation that is both rewarding and satisfying. Our findings provide novel contributions for both theory and practice.
Future research should consider these findings as building blocks for intervention programs that utilize relationship and communication as psychological process for behavioral change. The studies involving human participants were reviewed and approved by Loughborough University. LD designed study 1 and study 2, collected data and prepared and wrote the manuscript.
SJ designed both study 1 and study 2 together with LD and collected data. SJ inputted into the manuscript. ST analyzed the data and inputted into the results section of the manuscript. The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U.
Journal List Front Psychol v.
Interpersonal Perception: A Social Relations Analysis (Distinguished Contributions in Psychology)
Front Psychol. Published online Sep Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. This article was submitted to Movement Science and Sport Psychology, a section of the journal Frontiers in Psychology.
Received Jun 24; Accepted Sep 6. The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author s and the copyright owner s are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.
Associated Data Data Availability Statement The datasets generated for this study are available on request to the corresponding author. Abstract The present two-study paper examined the role of communication strategies that athletes use to develop their coach-athlete relationship. Keywords: communication, relationship quality, athlete satisfaction, longitudinal, coach-athlete relationship.
Introduction Following major performance success in competitive events e. The Present Study The quality of relationships coaches and athletes develop and maintain with one another creates a social situation that can be viewed as positive rewarding, supportive, motivating or negative disappointing, unhelpful, uninspiring. Athlete satisfaction The Athlete Satisfaction Questionnaire ASQ; Riemer and Chelladurai, was employed to assess three facets of athlete satisfaction: 3 items assessed satisfaction with individual performance e.
Data Analysis Firstly, descriptive statistics and bivariate correlations were performed. Results Descriptive Statistics Table 1 presents the means, standard deviations, alpha reliability coefficients and bivariate correlations for all variables investigated in this study. Open in a separate window. Mediation Analyses Following the procedures outlined by Anderson and Gerbing , two measurement models one with direct relationship quality and another with meta relationship quality were examined prior to estimating the structural models.
Results Descriptive Statistics Table 2 presents the means, standard deviations, alpha reliability coefficients, and bivariate correlations for all three main variables investigated in this study. Mediation Analysis First, we established if we had measurement invariance over time in the communication measure by examining increasingly restricted measurement models including our two communication measures over time as well as relationship quality direct or meta. Discussion The aim of study 2 was to examine the associations between communication strategies and coach-athlete relationship quality over time.
Summary Discussion Although the role of coach-athlete relationships in sport has been widely recognized within the last two decades Wylleman, ; Jowett, , only limited research has examined the role of communication strategies within the context of the coach-athlete relationship see, e. Data Availability Statement The datasets generated for this study are available on request to the corresponding author. Ethics Statement The studies involving human participants were reviewed and approved by Loughborough University.
Author Contributions LD designed study 1 and study 2, collected data and prepared and wrote the manuscript. Conflict of Interest The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest.
References Adie J.