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  1. Means and Myths of Transmission in Western Esotericism
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The grouping of these psalms is in the Roman Catholic, not Jewish, tradition. The seven psalms are sung during the days of Lent, the forty days before Easter. The artist used micrography, a technique in which text is written in miniscule letters.

In order to produce a clear image he first painted the figure of David using faint gray washes for modeling and then varied the intensity of the ink used for the text. Year in the framing element at the bottom. Herlingen was a gifted calligrapher and one of two Jewish scribes of the eighteenth century who wrote not only Hebrew, but also Latin.

Means and Myths of Transmission in Western Esotericism

Among his most interesting works are five calligraphic single-sheet manuscripts of sizes smaller than a modern letter-size sheet of paper on which he combined the texts of the Five Scrolls in five different Semitic and European languages and types of script. Two unsigned illustrated micrographic Esther scrolls are also attributed to him. Other calligraphic works by Herlingen and by his contemporary Meshullam Zimmel of Polna, who also worked in Vienna, were dedicated to the Imperial family as well. It is not known how these works were presented, if at all. Die Forschung hatte keine Kenntnis von ihr.

Andere seiner Werke waren jedoch wohlbekannt und eine ganze Reihe von ihnen erschien in den er-Jahren als Faksimileausgaben. Jahrhunderts bezeichnet wird, war er bei Weitem nicht der produktivste. Zwischen und signierte er lediglich 16 Werke, die er wahrscheinlich bis auf eines auch selber illustrierte. Other works of Joseph ben David of Leipnik are well known; a number of his works appeared in facsimile editions in the s.

Although he is often considered the most influential scribe-artist of the eighteenth century, Joseph ben David was not the most productive one. Sixteen manuscripts signed by him are known. Copied between and , all but one were illustrated by him as well.

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Fifteen of these are Passover Haggadot. He then went to Darmstadt, where he produced manuscripts in , , and , and settled in Altona not later than The names of some of his patrons are known through his colophons. He probably earned his living primarily as a teacher. His name does not appear in the archives of the Hamburg or Altona Jewish communities. The illustrations of Joseph ben David were innovative; he introduced new themes and a completely different palette. The iconographic program of the Braginsky Haggadah is similar to his other manuscripts of the same period and largely dependent on the printed Amsterdam Haggadot of and The colorful title page with the figures of Moses and Aaron is strongly reminiscent of a Haggadah recently discovered in the library of Blickling Hall in Norfolk, England, and of a number of other Haggadot from his hand.

Its design is inspired by printed architectural title pages. These illustrations were usually based on models older than the Amsterdam printed editions.

Zwischen und schuf er mindestens 23 solcher Werke. Im Zentrum seiner Produktion stehen Pessach-Haggadot, doch deckt sein Gesamtwerk auch ein breites Spektrum unterschiedlicher Gebetsgattungen ab. Vor allem im Jahrhundert waren Omer-Kalender in unterschiedlicher Ausgestaltungsehr beliebt. Die im Katalog abgebildeten Illustrationen zeigen: 3. Von ihm kennt man an die zwanzig Werke, wovon die meisten unsigniert sind.


In den signierten bezeichnet er sich immer als Kopist und Illustrator. Nur drei der biblischen Motive sind nicht von Vorlagen bekannt. Einige Illustrationen bedienen sich christlicher Vorlagen. Dieses Bild war seit dem Jahrhundert durch die Reproduktionsgrafik weithin bekannt. Jahrhundert promovieren.

Auf der Eingangsseite des Diploms ist das Emblem der Familie Olmo wiedergegeben: eine Ulme, fl ankiert von einem sprudelnden Brunnen und einem Getreidehalm. Jahrhundert hervorgegangen. Aaron Wolf Herlingen schrieb und illustrierte die Titelseite. Verschiedene Anmerkungen und Zitate deuten darauf hin, dass bedeutende aschkenasische Rabbiner Zugang zu ihr hatten, so etwa Jakob Weil, ein bekannter Gelehrter und Rabbiner des Ob er nur die Texte schrieb oder auch die Illustrationen schuf, muss noch genauer untersucht werden.

Hier steht jeder Sohn als Knabe vor einem Tisch, hinter dem der Vater sitzt oder steht. Diese Szene symbolisiert eine entscheidende Wegmarke in der Entwicklung des Kindes. Ausser dem Titelblatt mit Architekturrahmen und den Figuren von Moses und Aaron gibt es sechs weitere Abbildungen im Text, darunter eine sehr seltene Darstellung einer nur teilweise im Ritualbad untergetauchten Frau oder auch die eher konventionelle Darstellung einer Frau beim Lesen des Schema-Gebets vor dem Schlafengehen.

Der Vertragstext ist im Wesentlichen in einer sefardischen Kursive geschrieben. Contracts were written on large pieces of parchment and ornamented in bright colors. By the second half of the nineteenth century Gibraltar developed its own characteristic and readily identifiable type of decoration. The present Gibraltar contract belongs to an early period of local ketubbah decoration, though some of its features foretell later developments. The upper section depicts a pair of lions crouched back-to-back, overlaid with circles containing the abbreviated Ten Commandments.

The composition is reminiscent of the top of Torah arks and indeed it is topped with a crown, intended as a Torah Crown.

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This motif, typical of later Gibraltar ketubbot, was often modeled on the British royal crown. The crouching lions are flanked by vases of flowers. In the side borders, beneath theatrical drapery and trumpets suspended from ribbons, fanciful column bases are surmounted by urns. Several elements in the marriage contract are characteristic of Gibraltar ketubbot.

The initial word of the wedding day, Wednesday, as was common, is enlarged and ornamented. The sum of the dowry and increment is a factor of eighteen, the number that is also the propitious word hai, written here in monumental letters amid small cursive script. Also typical of Gibraltar is the ornamental Latin monogram at bottom center. This feature is also found in Moroccan ketubbot, as are the section with Sephardic conditions, and the request that God take revenge for the expulsion of the Jews from Castile cat.

As the holiday marks the Giving of the Law, mystical traditions asserted that on this day Moses, as the matchmaker, brought the Jewish people the bridegroom to Mount Sinai the wedding place to marry God or the Torah the bride. To commemorate this mystical union, among European Sephardim and in some communities in Islamic lands the custom has been to prepare a special ketubbah for Shavuot and to recite it in the synagogue prior to the reading of the Torah on the first day of the holiday.

While several versions of ketubbot for Shavuot are known, the most popular in Sephardic communities has been the poetic text composed by the renowned mystic of Safed, Rabbi Israel Najara ? He will never take a second wife namely, another religion , and neither abandon nor neglect her. Their dwelling will be in the Land of Israel, as Heaven and Earth witness the union. Divided into three sections, this special text appears within an imposing wooden architectural setting, comprising three arches and a broken pediment, within which is a crowned Decalogue.

The upper story employs a dynamic rhythm of decorative architectural elements. The entire structure resembles a typical Sephardic Torah ark ehal from the synagogues of Gibraltar. Indeed the name of one of these synagogues, Nefutzot Yehudah, founded , appears at the top. Certainly this sumptuous ketubbah was once chanted there. Many other features associate the contract with the Gibraltar community and its ketubbot.

Am beliebtesten war wohl ein Poem von Rabbi Israel ben Moses Najara um — aus Safed, von dem in diesem Exemplar eine modifizierte Fassung wiedergegeben ist. Blumenfestons und Draperien unterstreichen den festlichen Charakter.

Die Kabbalah auf ihrem Höhepunkt und ihre Meister

Distinctive types of richly decorated ketubbot developed locally. In fact, the prominent Jewish families of Ancona invested so much effort and money in commissioning sumptuous ketubbot for the weddings of their offspring that community authorities were forced to limit the amount that could be spent on the decoration of the contract. This large piece of parchment is decoratively trimmed at the top. Its captivating border, highlighted by designs in strikingly bright tones of gold and green, closely follows popular frames of the time.

Within the colorful floral and ornamental patterns that frame the text are three vibrant biblical episodes. Supported by a pair of classical hybrid figures at top center, the main episode depicts the prophet Elijah ascending to heaven, riding in his fiery horse-drawn chariot, while his amazed disciple, Elisha, watches below.

The identification of the scene is confirmed by a biblical quote from II Kings Typical of Italian ketubbot, the depiction of biblical heroes in their finest hour alludes to the names of the bridal couple. The other two biblical episodes appear in the cartouches at the center of each of the side borders.

At right, the scene of the Triumph of Mordecai, inscribed with the text of Esther , refers to the second name of the bridegroom, Mordecai.


Depicted at left is another triumph — that of David over Goliath, accompanied by a quote from I Samuel The practice of decorating marriage contracts was revived in early seventeenth- century Amsterdam under the influence of Italian ketubbah artists. In Amsterdam in the late s the noted Italian Jewish engraver Shalom Italia created a copper engraving used as the border for the ketubbot of the Portuguese community.

The new border, of which this example is one of the earliest, became the most widespread framing device for marriage contracts of Dutch Sephardim. The popular border consists of an arch supported by two columns entwined with floral wreaths. Two images appear in the top corners. The one on the left portrays a young, bare-breasted woman who holds a baby, while a second child stands next to her.

The two images symbolize the ideals of marriage and motherhood. The large ornamental cartouche at the bottom contains the special conditions common among Western Sephardim. The calligraphic text commemo- rates the marriage of a known Sephardic physician, Daniel Tzemah Aboab, who was active in his commu- nity as the head of the local Talmud Torah and as a fund raiser for the Bikkur Holim Society from to Jahrhundert hinein. Sie verweisen auf die Vorstellung, dass das Brautpaar bei der Trauung symbolisch durch ein himmlisches Tor einen geheiligten Raum betritt, der ihr Leben fortan bestimmen soll.

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While the art of ketubbah decoration declined in northern Italy during the last decades of the eighteenth century, in central Italy, most prominently in the papal states of Rome and Ancona, it continued to flourish well into the nineteenth century, especially among affluent families.